Football Tokyo Olympics: IOA fuming as Japan imposes stricter regulations on India’s Olympic team, calls it ‘discriminatory and unfair’ Cricket WTC Final LIVE Day 3: Weather forecast again not good, rain & bad-light all set to impact India vs New Zealand Day 3 Cricket Facebook Twitter Latest Sports News Euro 2020 LIVE broadcast in more than 200 countries, check how you can watch Live Streaming of EURO 2020 in your country Share on Facebook Tweet on Twitter ICC WTC Final: 10 years of Virat Kohli’s Test career, 10 best moments of India’s greatest Test skipper Cricket TAGSHarbhajan SinghIPL 2020Virat Kohli IPLVirat Kohli RCBYUZVENDRA CHAHAL SHARE IPL 2020: Yuzvendra Chahal, Harbhajan Singh troll Virat Kohli for wearing small shorts; Check out the video Tokyo Olympics Village: Organizers unveils Tokyo games athletes village to the media, check first look Cricket IND vs NZ in WTC Final: India batting coach says, ‘score above 250 on Day 3 would be good’, Kyle Jamieson feels it won’t… CricketIndian premier leagueIndian premier league 2020SportSport News Royal Challengers Bangalore Captain Virat Kohli who is among the fittest cricketers. Kohli leaves no stone unturned to make sure his fitness remains at par.Ahead of the clash between RCB and KXIP, Kohli took his social media to share a video of his intense workout session as he prepares for the heat.As soon as the video got posted, the comment section got flooded as players started taking a dig on Kohli.Kohli’s RCB teammate Yuzvendra Chahal wrote,”Why you are wearing my shorts bhaiya.” on which RCB skipper came up with his comeback and wrote,” Because you never wear them”.Harbhajan Singh and Kevin Pietersen also trolled Kohli for wearing small shorts.Meanwhile, Royal Challengers Bangalore are getting ready to take another win for the season as the lock horns with KL Rahul-led Kings XI Punjab today.KXIP vs RCB in IPL 2020 LIVE: Where to catch KXIP vs RCB Live Streaming?The match between KingsXI Punjab vs Royal Challengers Bangalore will be live broadcasted on Star Sports Network in the Indian Sub-Continent. The KXIP vs RCB will also be Live Streamed on Disney+ Hotstar.IPL 2020 Fans can also catch the KXIP vs RCB Score & Ball by Ball Updates on InsideSport.co Euro 2020- Spain vs Poland Highlights: Spain held to 1-1 draw as Lewandowski’s Poland keep Euro hopes alive By Kunal Dhyani – September 24, 2020 Cricket WI vs SA 2nd Test Day 2 Stumps: West Indies bowled out for 149 runs in 1st innings, SA lead by 149 runs YourBump15 Actors That Hollywood Banned For LifeYourBump|SponsoredSponsoredUndoDefinitionMost Embarrassing Mistakes Ever Made In HistoryDefinition|SponsoredSponsoredUndoPost FunThese Twins Were Named “Most Beautiful In The World,” Wait Until You See Them TodayPost Fun|SponsoredSponsoredUndoDaily FunnyFemale Athlete Fails You Can’t Look Away FromDaily Funny|SponsoredSponsoredUndoDefinitionTime Was Not Kind To These 28 CelebritiesDefinition|SponsoredSponsoredUndoFreight & Shipping Quotes | Search AdsResearch & Compare Freight & Shipping QuotesEnjoy Affordable Freight & Shipping Services With These Service ProvidersFreight & Shipping Quotes | Search Ads|SponsoredSponsoredUndo RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Sport News Cricket Football WTC final LIVE broadcast: ICC’s mega broadcast plan, India vs New Zealand live streaming starts today in 195 countries WTC Final Day 2 Stumps: Brilliant Virat Kohli & Ajinkya Rahane saves the day for India as bad light stops play 33 overs early Previous articleIPL 2020 CSK vs DC: CSK ponder over Dhoni’s batting order, Delhi fret on Ashwin’s shoulder niggleNext articleIPL 2020: 5 most expensive buys who flopped; Will Pat Cummins also join the club? Kunal DhyaniSports Tech enthusiast, he reports on Sports Tech industry and writes on sports products.
Crown Paints Kenya (CRWN.ke) listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange under the Building & Associated sector has released it’s 2003 annual report.For more information about Crown Paints Kenya (CRWN.ke) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Crown Paints Kenya (CRWN.ke) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Crown Paints Kenya (CRWN.ke) 2003 annual report.Company ProfileCrown Paints (Kenya) Limited manufactures and sells a range of paints and adhesives for the home decor, construction and industrial sectors. The company supplies markets in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somali, South Sudan and the DRC. Its retail paint range includes emulsion water-based paints, roof paint, wood finishes, textured finishes and special effects, floor paints and gloss/oil-based paints. Its construction and industrial division range includes Polyfilla, primers, undercoats, fillers and skimming products as well as an automotive range which includes metallic paint and 2K acrylic systems and nitro cellulose systems. Other products produced by Crown Pains Kenya include paint for road markings, and applications for tiles, leather, wood, fabricators and paper. Service operations include computerized tinting machines capable of dispensing a range of over 6 000 shades in a few minutes. Formerly known as Crown Berger Kenya Limited, the company changed its name to Crown Paints Kenya Limited in 2012. The company has its head office in Nairobi, Kenya. Crown Berger (Kenya) Limited is listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange
FUJIHIMURO Gallery and Residence / Taku Sakaushi (O.F.D.A.) + Sakaushi Lab (TUS)Save this projectSaveFUJIHIMURO Gallery and Residence / Taku Sakaushi (O.F.D.A.) + Sakaushi Lab (TUS) FUJIHIMURO Gallery and Residence / Taku Sakaushi (O.F.D.A.) + Sakaushi Lab (TUS) ArchDaily Lead Architects: Taku Sakaushi, Tamon Kozu, Saori Toriumi, Kazuhiro Terutoki, Kentaro Nomura, Hirofumi Nakagawa Area: 249 m² Year Completion year of this architecture project 2019 ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/920998/fujihimuro-gallery-and-residence-taku-sakaushi-ofda-plus-sakaushi-lab-tus Clipboard Photographs Houses Save this picture!© Masashige Akeda+ 41Curated by Paula Pintos Share Manufacturers: AutoDesk, Lilycolor, Robert McNeel & Associates CopyAbout this officeTaku Sakaushi (O.F.D.A.)OfficeFollowSakaushi Lab (TUS)OfficeFollow#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesRefurbishmentRenovationFujiyoshidaJapanPublished on July 19, 2019Cite: “FUJIHIMURO Gallery and Residence / Taku Sakaushi (O.F.D.A.) + Sakaushi Lab (TUS)” 18 Jul 2019. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
News Worrying moves under May’s leadership lead to dropped UK ranking in RSF’s 2017 World Press Freedom Index United KingdomEurope – Central Asia Freedom of expression Organisation UK general election: political party manifestos present a mixed bag for press freedom News to go further May 11, 2017 Find out more Following the State Opening of Parliament on 21 June, Reporters Without Borders – known internationally as Reporters sans frontières (RSF) – calls on the government to take immediate steps to reverse the negative press freedom trends of the past year and improve the climate for free expression in the UK. United KingdomEurope – Central Asia Freedom of expression Help by sharing this information May 19, 2017 Find out more Receive email alerts RSF_en Press contact: Rebecca Vincent at [email protected] or +44 (0)7583 137751 News Since Theresa May became Prime Minister in July 2016, her government has enacted a number of worrying moves to restrict press freedom, resulting in the UK dropping two places to a ranking of 40th out of 180 countries in RSF’s 2017 World Press Freedom Index.One notable case is that of Zaina Erhaim, an award-winning Syrian journalist who was detained and questioned in September 2016 at London Heathrow airport, where UK border authorities seized her passport, which had falsely been flagged as stolen by the Assad regime. The move left Erhaim and her infant daughter at risk, and nine months later, the Home Office still refuses to return her passport or provide Erhaim with other concrete assistance.As Home Secretary, May herself authored the menacing Investigatory Powers Act, which was adopted in November 2016 and has been described as “the most extreme surveillance law in UK history”. RSF has cautioned the law could serve as an effective “death sentence for investigative journalism” in the UK as it does not contain sufficient mechanisms to protect whistleblowers, journalists, and their sources.In parallel to the Investigatory Powers debate, issues around press regulation once again came to a head in November 2016 when Impress became approved as a regulator. That made Section 40 of the Crime and Courts Act 2013 a potential threat to press freedom, as it contained a cost-shifting provision that, if implemented, could hold publishers who refused to join the state-approved regulator liable for the costs of all claims against them, regardless of merit. In a welcome step, the Conservative party manifesto pledged to repeal Section 40 and not to proceed with phase two of the Leveson Inquiry – both measures RSF has called for.In a further alarming step in February, the Law Commission proposed replacing the Official Secrets Act with an updated ‘Espionage Act’ that would expand the scope of espionage as being “capable of being committed by someone who not only communicates information, but also by someone who obtains or gathers it”. The proposed bill would make it easy to label journalists, bloggers, and others as ‘spies’ and jail them for up to 14 years for simply obtaining leaked information.Restrictions by both the Conservative and Labour parties on journalists’ access to campaign events in the run-up to the 8 June snap general election prompted RSF to call on all candidates to respect press freedom in their campaigning. However, in the days immediately preceding the election, top government officials made a number of worrying comments indicating that further moves against press freedom could be on the horizon.On 4 June, speaking about the London Bridge terror attack, May said the Internet must be further regulated to “deprive the extremists of their safe spaces online”, in line with Home Secretary Amber Rudd’s prior suggestion that end-to-end encryption via tools like WhatsApp was “completely unacceptable”. On 7 June, May said she would change human rights laws if they “get in the way” of the government’s anti-terrorism efforts. This attitude was not limited to the Prime Minister; on 6 June, Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson flippantly said in a radio interview with LBC, “People have had enough about this free speech stuff”.“The state of press freedom in the UK has become very worrying indeed over the past year – a negative trend that must be reversed. We call on the government to ensure that respect for press freedom and broader human rights is at the core of all practices, policies, and legislation going forward”, said Rebecca Vincent, RSF’s UK Bureau Director.As immediate measures, RSF urges the government to implement without delay the Conservative manifesto pledge to repeal Section 40 of the Crime and Courts Act 2013 and abandon phase two of the Leveson Inquiry, and to return the passport of Syrian journalist Zaina Erhaim and ensure that the UK system is not manipulated to target critical foreign journalists in the future.RSF further calls on the government to scrap any plans to turn the Law Commission’s proposal for an ‘Espionage Act’ into draft legislation; to refrain from introducing ill-founded counter-extremism legislation that would threaten free expression; and to ensure the protection of whistleblowers, journalists, and their sources in implementing the Investigatory Powers Act. June 22, 2017 As new parliament opens, RSF calls on the UK government to reverse negative press freedom trends RSF urges politicians to respect press freedom in the UK general election campaign EMMANUEL DUNAND / AFP News Follow the news on United Kingdom April 26, 2017 Find out more
IsraelMiddle East – North Africa May 28, 2021 Find out more News News News Receive email alerts IsraelMiddle East – North Africa Follow the news on Israel May 20, 2003 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Outrage over beating of two Palestinian journalists by Israeli soldiers RSF asks ICC prosecutor to say whether Israeli airstrikes on media in Gaza constitute war crimes May 16, 2021 Find out more Israel now holding 13 Palestinian journalists Reporters Without Borders today voiced its outrage at the violent beating which two clearly identified Palestinian journalists received from Israeli soldiers late last night in Bethlehem. One of the journalists sustained an injury to his right hand that will prevent him from working for some time.Calling it “a gratuitous physical attack,” Reporters Without Borders secretary-general Robert Ménard said, “Israeli soldiers must learn the difference between a beating and an ID check that respects journalists’ freedom of movement and dignity.”Ménard said last night’s events were not as serious as the killing of two journalists – Nazeh Darwazi and James Miller – by the Israeli army in two separate incidents last month. “But they are no less revealing of the intimidation that journalists systematically receive from Israeli soldiers in the Palestinian Territories,” he added.The victims of last night’s beating were Joseph Handal, 27, a cameraman with the French public TV station France 2, and Chaaban Qandel, 21, a cameraman with Arab Network News.They were driving along Bethlehem’s main road at around midnight in a car marked “press” and covered with “TV” stickers when they were stopped by a group of at least four Israeli soldiers, who hit them and threw them to the ground. Although the cameramen protested that they were journalists and showed their press cards, the soldiers continued to beat with great force. Both were treated in the Beit Jala hospital, Handal for a double fracture to his right hand. Help by sharing this information News Organisation June 3, 2021 Find out more RSF_en WhatsApp blocks accounts of at least seven Gaza Strip journalists to go further
Print ALMOST 3,500 students from Mary Immaculate College in Limerick were sent from the campus facility this Thursday with a view to not returning until Wednesday next due to an outbreak of the vomiting bug at the city college. Eight students reported with the bug and the college was forced to take action under HSE advice. A statement released had the follwoing detalls.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up “Despite the fact that no new cases of the virus have been presented since Tuesday the College, in consultation with the HSE, has taken the decision to implement effective control measures, including the suspension of all College activities, in order to facilitate the intensive cleaning and sanitisation of the College campus so as to prevent a secondary introduction of the virus.Contrary to recent speculation these incidents are not connected to the recent Student Union’s Ball which was held at the South Court Hotel last Friday night.The College expressed their gratitude to the HSE for the swift and professional manner in which they dealt with this matter and thanked them for their advice and assistance over the past few days.” Advertisement WhatsApp NewsLocal NewsVomiting bug closes Mary I CollegeBy admin – March 12, 2009 522 Email Linkedin Twitter Facebook Previous articleAll in place for festive weekendNext articleLee to fight former European title challenger admin
Linkedin Limerick Artist ‘Willzee’ releases new Music Video – “A Dream of Peace” Advertisement WATCH: “Everyone is fighting so hard to get on” – Pat Ryan on competitive camogie squads Facebook RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR TAGSdrugDublinGardaíKeane CollopylimerickMcCarthy Dundon Email Twitter Print NewsCrime & CourtLimerickDeadly weapons seized in Limerick drug raidBy Staff Reporter – March 29, 2018 3296 Limerick Ladies National Football League opener to be streamed live Limerick’s National Camogie League double header to be streamed live Predictions on the future of learning discussed at Limerick Lifelong Learning Festival WhatsApp Previous articleThe Record Room opens at The CommercialNext articleTributes paid to council administrator for his years of service to Limerick Staff Reporterhttp://www.limerickpost.ie Some of the knives seized in the Limerick raidSWORDS, hatchets and lethal knives used to threaten drugs dealers and addicts over debts have been seized by Gardai in raid on a Limerick drug den.A Samurai sword and several hatchets were seized earlier this month when gardai targeted a criminal gang operating in the city.The weapons and a small quantity of drugs were seized in the first raid on a property linked to the gang while a second raid on a property was carried out two days later where two hunting knives were seized.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up Gardai say that the seizures and the resulting disruptions caused to organised criminal activity were significant but not without the belief that the gang has access to a further arsenal of weapons including guns.While no arrests were made in connection with the seizures, Gardai are continuing to investigate the activity of the gang and a number of key individuals with previous convictions who are understood to have joined alliances with members of a major Dublin criminal gang.See more Limerick news here Billy Lee names strong Limerick side to take on Wicklow in crucial Division 3 clash
By News Highland – October 6, 2012 More cold water poured on speculation of a McGuinness move to UK 365 additional cases of Covid-19 in Republic Facebook 75 positive cases of Covid confirmed in North Main Evening News, Sport and Obituaries Tuesday May 25th WhatsApp Man arrested on suspicion of drugs and criminal property offences in Derry News Facebook Twitter Pinterest Pinterest Previous articleTaoiseach: Staffing concerns at LKG are a matter for managmentNext articlePresident says LYIT is better suited to serve students’ needs News Highland Google+ Twitter WhatsApp Sources close to the Donegal GAA management team are again rejecting speculation All Ireland winning manager Jim Mc Guinness is heading for the Premier League.There are reports that he is being lined up for a move to Liverpool FC to work as a sports psychologist.It’s the second time in the space of a week that a change of code for McGuinness has been floated, following on from rumours that Celtic were keen to use his services.Jim Mc Guinness has a Masters Degree in sports psychology from John Moore’s University in Liverpool, and the link with the football club has been mentioned in the context of a relationship between McGuinness and their manager Brendan Rodgers.However today’s Irish Independent reports that Rogers, a native of Antrim, who played hurling and Gaelic football in his youth, is bemused by the speculation.Speculatuion of a Celtic link seems more tangible.Celtic boss Neil Lennon is a big fan of McGuinness and was around the Donegal hotel after their All-Ireland final win over Mayo.Prior to that game, he revealed that he had invited McGuinness to Scotland and given him a tour of Celtic’s facilities.However, everyone expects Jim McGuinness to be in charge of Donegal in 2013, so any development of a working relationship will have to be delayed by 12 months at the very least. Google+ Gardai continue to investigate Kilmacrennan fire RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Further drop in people receiving PUP in Donegal
ColumnsManifestation Of Fake News: Possible Legal & Policy Issues To Be Considered Before Formulating Any Law Himanshu Arora6 Jun 2020 4:31 AMShare This – xDuring this lockdown situation, we have witnessed array of rumors or fake news; from Amul Company shutting down its milk chilling centers to the effective use of ginger, lemon and honey to counter the virus or to dispersing or spraying of the medicine by helicopters. Clearly, the proliferation of inaccurate or misleading news is spiraling upwards, especially during Covid-19…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginDuring this lockdown situation, we have witnessed array of rumors or fake news; from Amul Company shutting down its milk chilling centers to the effective use of ginger, lemon and honey to counter the virus or to dispersing or spraying of the medicine by helicopters. Clearly, the proliferation of inaccurate or misleading news is spiraling upwards, especially during Covid-19 Pandemic situation. Our mobile phones and social media accounts are flooded with fake posts, doctored videos and congenial but unverified theories (especially qua the origin of Corona Virus and its cure)[i], which are quickly shared or forwarded, especially through Whatsapp, Tiktok and Facebook, and out of which some may tickle your fancies at one hand, but some may create tension and unrest amongst people at large. For instance, just couple of days ago, a video on social media went viral where the soldiers of two different armies were shown to be engaged in a provocative incursions and it was being claimed that Chinese soldiers are provoking the Indian army soldiers at the Ladakh Indo-China Border, but the original video was traced back to the year 2014 and pertaining to Arunachal Pradesh Border, though the Indian army has never avowed for the video as well.[ii] Such unverified claims or rumors are dangerous and have the ability to instill fear and terror in the minds of people and may cause chaos and disruption in the society and tensions between the countries. Hence, the question is that what is this concept of ‘Fake News’ has assumed significance and it is important to know that in what forms, it exists or reaches to us. The concept of ‘Fake News’ False news stories, often of a sensational nature, are usually created and distributed for the purpose of generating revenue, or for fulfilling oblique motives or for securing political advantages or maligning someone’s reputation. But the concept of ‘Fake News’ is not a new thing as many occasions can be cited in the history where Kings or Empires used to spread false news to gain political or moral support of the public or to cheat the enemies.[iii]. In simple words, it would mean any information which has falsity in its content, in whole or in part, regardless of the fact that whether it is spread deliberately (i.e. disinformation) or non-deliberately (i.e. misinformation). By most of the definitions of ‘disinformation’, as available, it is deducible that there are two key aspects of disinformation: The falsehood of the information The intention to mislead [iv] Forms and Categories- There are different forms and categories of Fake News which are directed at different kinds of audience and some of the main forms/categories are discussed below:Rumors and Belief-Echo – Rumors could be true or false. They may have something and may not. Nonetheless, rumors may have an enormous influence on people’s perception of a situation or a person. However, the term ‘Belief-Echo’ applies to the phenomenon that, even after an alleged rumor has been established to be false, the belief-echo still has an influence on people’s perception of the person/institution at the center of the rumor. Recently, a message was being circulated that our Prime Minister has been appointed as chairman of WHO, but there is not even any such post exiting the WHO organization, and such claim has been rejected as ‘Fake News'[v]. But the influence and the positive image which such messages create in the minds of people can be inextricable.Propaganda – It means any kind of false or misleading information, including misquoted statements and biased or slanted news, spread or distributed with the intention of influencing people’s opinions or behavior, even subliminally, or to promote particular set of ideas. In country like India, where there are different religions and communities, propaganda has always been used by politicians or religious leaders to generate hatred towards a particular sect or community by creating a false image in the minds of their followers. For example, just a month ago, after the Tablighi Jamat incidence, we received heavy amount of messages/posts, which were mainly targeted towards a particular minority group and labelling them as the enemies of the country. However, when these messages/posts were checked or verified, about 1/3 of them turned out to be fake. [vi] This proves that it was nothing but just a propaganda to malign the reputation or the image of the minority in the eyes of majority. Sometimes even media channels also propagate sensationalized news or distorted facts to pressurize state agencies. Recently, Mumbai police has alleged that famous news anchor Mr. Arnab Goswami has been misusing its position to malign police and to indirectly sway the investigation being conducted in criminal cases filed against him.[vii]Ideology or Authority Challenging News – Sometimes, when true facts or news tries to challenge someone’s ideology or established authority, then that news is usually labeled as ‘fake-news’ as well. In simple words, attempts to present facts and events from the perspective that is not based on the shared set of assumptions would likely be dismissed as ‘fake’.[viii] For example, our neighboring country Pakistan denied the conducting of surgical strikes by Indian Army in Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir in 2016 and termed it as ‘fake news’.[ix]Satires, Parodies & Predictions –Satires and Parodies are used to criticize policies and decisions in a comical sense, which sometimes may use some false or made-up stories. And, sometimes, predictions are also made about the possible results of polls or other events or possible decisions to be taken by authorities or big companies by media channels. In real sense, these forms of news are particularly important for forming political opinions and also helps to take timely decisions or prepare better for upcoming events. These types of news forms cannot be strictly termed as ‘fake news’ but an offshoot of these types has always been that a number of people actually believe them to be true or get confused, which can produce same ramifications as ‘fake news’ would do. Hence, proper disclaimers or unequivocal headlines or taglines are required to dispel any confusion in the minds of viewers.The other types of fake news could be ‘Lies and Bullshits’, ‘Ad-driven News’, ‘Sloppy Journalism’, ‘Misleading Headings’, or ‘Fake reviews’, ‘Yellow Journalism’ as well. Considerable Legal and Policy Issues Undoubtedly, the impact of Fake News is increasing day by day, the governments of different countries[x] are also getting active in introducing new laws and policies to curb the menace of it. However, some legal and policy related issues and considerations have also cropped up, which are worth considering before regulating the issue of ‘Fake News’ and these are mentioned as below:Freedom of Speech and Expression – It is a basic and fundamental human right (recognized by the constitutions of all the countries) and it is important to keep in mind while enacting laws or implementing policies that this right should also be respected for sure.Moreover, the important issue is also that whether the human right to impart information is only limited to “correct” statements? And if it also includes the right to disseminate information and ideas that may shock, offend and disturb, without verifying the contents. So, the prohibitions on disinformation may violate international human rights standards, while, at the same time, this does not justify the dissemination of knowingly or recklessly false statements, especially by state actors[xi]. The dissemination of false information also interferes with Right of Public to know and seek or receive correct information. So, a complete ‘Blanket-ban’ policy could give rise to ‘freedom of speech’ issues in one scenario and ‘No-ban’ Policy would affect the ‘Public Right to know’ in another scenario. Therefore, a balanced approach needs to be adopted whereby both the important aforesaid competing human rights are protected.Satires/Parodies/Ironies as a recognized Exception – Parodies or Satires or Ironies, though it could mean as misinformation or ‘Fake News’ for some people, should be protected and encouraged (by treating them as an exception) as they are inherent part of freedom of speech (political) and they are in interpretative in nature and eventually, help in developing more thoughts and framing opinions and perspectives. Commentators and News-Presenters commonly use these to make their speech a bit more interesting and appealing. So, while framing laws and policies, Satires/Parodies/Ironies should be recognized as an exception.Right to Freedom of business/profession – Media companies and Journalists/correspondents have also the right to conduct their business/profession bonafidely, without any interference or any fear of being prosecuted. Too much restrictive laws such as repressive rules regarding the establishment and operation of media outlets and/or websites or denying accreditation to their journalists and politically-motivated prosecutions of journalists; unduly restrictive laws on what content may not be disseminated, may have a chilling effect upon this right and would invite serious repercussions. We must also assure that such laws are not being used as a tool by some Governments to suppress dissent and/or to control public communications, as the States are under a positive obligation to promote enabling environment for freedom of speech and expression but not to curtail it.Foisting liabilities on Intermediaries – Information Society service providers, social platforms and other Intermediaries has played a pivotal role in revamping Individual’s ability to seek, receive and disseminate information. They should never be liable for any third party content relating to those services unless they specifically intervene in that content or refuse to obey an order adopted in accordance with due process guarantees by an independent, impartial, authoritative oversight body (such as a court) to remove it and they have the technical capacity to do that[xii]. So, it is really important to fix their liability in accordance with their roles and contribution.Vertical approach or Horizontal Approach – There are different kinds of Fake News (as already mentioned above in Point no.2) which are targeted at different audiences by different channels and has different slant motives. So, there cannot be one solution or Horizontal-type approach in dealing with all different types of Fake News. Distinct actions/measures should be tailored to suit diverse wrongdoings: Immediate takedown where the news is proved to be false immediately, notice-and-notice for IP infringement, notice-wait-and-takedown for defamatory information, and notice-and-takedown and notice-and-suspension for hate speech. Notice-and-judicial-take-down provides an alternative that should be available in all cases[xiii]. So, a certain vertical approach (providing different remedies/measures for different violations) should be followed, while framing policies and laws.Conflicts of Applicable Law and Jurisdiction – Last but not the least, the issue of Conflicts of Applicable Law and Jurisdiction, is a really relevant legal issue, given the fact that the Fake News problem is cosmopolitan in nature and the individuals or entities which generate fake news or intermediaries which host it could be from different countries and similarly, the persons/public who become the victim or misled by the fake news could of some other country. So, when any matter is filed before a court of any country for take down of Fake News or for any other related reliefs, then the trial court has to deal with the complex issues of jurisdiction and choice of Law and in the absence of any international conventions/agreements, it would be difficult for the trial courts to find the answers to these issues. Hence, it is also advisable rather necessary for all the countries of the world to come together and conclude international conventions to deal and/or solve the aforesaid issues.4. Actions to Curb ‘Fake News’. The Problem of ‘Fake-News’ and its interference in election systems is increasing day by day, so in order to put a clampdown on Fake-News, different countries/jurisdictions have passed/proposed the laws, such as Germany has adopted the Network enforcement Act[xiv], which applies, regulates and foists liabilities on Tele-media service providers and platforms which provide Journalistic and editorial Contents and France has passed the new law[xv] , which aims to empower judges to order the immediate removal of “fake news” during election campaigns. However, in India, there are no special laws in the country, as of now, which specifically deals with the issues of Fake News or criminalizes the creation or sharing or spreading of it. Nonetheless, under civil or tort law, a victim or an aggrieved person can also bring an action for damages or compensation against the defaulter or a culpable person. However, some general laws can be invoked to take action against the culprits such as: Section 505(1) of Indian Penal Code, 1860: The punishment for making, publishing or circulating any statement, rumour or report which may cause fear or alarm to the public, or to any section of the public. Section 54 of the Disaster Management Act, 2005: Whoever makes or circulates a false alarm or warning as to disaster or its severity or magnitude, leading to panic. Besides, many private fact-checking websites and news channels (such as Boomlive.in, factchecker.in or Altnews.in) are also coming forward to verify the source and content of the news/information being distributed and to make the general public aware about the consequences of fake news. These fact-checking websites also allows users/viewers to send them any video or image to verify as to whether such video/image is doctored or original. Conclusion. When majority of the population is sitting at home, and the viewership or sharing of such fake content is at its peak, the repercussions which may follow could be overwhelming. Members of general public form their opinion upon the basis of information which they receive through different channels. However, if a majority of the people believes in something that is factually incorrect, then the misinformation may form the basis for political and societal decisions that will run counter to the country’s interest; if individuals are misinformed, they may likewise make decisions for themselves and their families that are not in their best interest and can have serious consequences[xvi]. Given the staggering rise in the creation and spread of the rumors, and in these tough times of pandemic, the virus of Fake News is no less than a lethal threat to human society. That is why the problem of Fake News cannot be undermined or neglected by the states and it is high time to regulate the ways/methods dissemination of information and block the generation or spreading of the Fake News. However, equally important is the aspect that while under the garb of formulating laws and framing policies to tackle the problem of Fake News, the competing rights and interests of the different entities (including citizens, media outlets, intermediaries and social platforms) should also not be jeopardized or eclipsed, which could also go against the public interest in the larger run. All what is required is to strike a balance between competing interests by adopting proportionate measures, which are to be applied in accordance with the facts and circumstances of each case. Resorting to blanket ban of fake-news or over-restrictive laws could not be an option as well. Hence, it is recommendable that the States, while formulating laws or policies on this issue, should take into consideration the aforesaid issues. Views Are Personal Only [i] Nishita Jha, ‘Fighting With Boomers About Coronavirus Misinformation On WhatsApp Won’t Make Any Of Us Less Afraid’ – https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/nishitajha/coronavirus-india-whatsapp-rumors [ii] Jignesh Patel ‘ Video traced back to 2014 shared as recent clash between Indian and Chinese soldiers’ -https://www.altnews.in/video-traced-back-to-2014-shared-as-recent-clash-between-indian-and-chinese-soldiers/ [iii] Echikson (2018) reports that in the 13th century BC, Ramses the Great spread lies and propaganda portraying the Battle of Kadesh as a stunning victory for the Egyptians. The battle was actually a stalemate. European Parliament, ‘The legal framework to address “fake news”: possible policy actions at the EU level’, < http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2018/619013/IPOL_IDA(2018)619013_EN.pdf> [iv] Ben Nimmo, ‘Identifying disinformation: an ABC’, Institute of European Studies, Issue 2016/01 – February 2016 < https://www.integrityinitiative.net/sites/default/files/2016-05/Identifying%20disinformation%20ABC.pdf> [v] Kinji, ‘False claim that PM Modi was appointed the ‘chairman’ of WHO – a position that does not exist’ https://www.altnews.in/who-doesnt-have-chairman-post-false-claim-viral-that-narendra-modi-has-appointed-as-chairman-of-who/ [vi] Niranjan Sahoo, ‘How fake news is complicating India’s war against COVID-19’ https://www.orfonline.org/expert-speak/how-fake-news-complicating-india-war-against-covid19-66052/ [vii] Apoorva Mandhani, ‘Maharashtra govt goes to SC against Arnab Goswami: Insulate police from ‘pressure threat’- https://theprint.in/judiciary/maharashtra-govt-goes-to-sc-against-arnab-goswami-insulate-police-from-pressure-threat/414273/ [viii] Damian Tambini, ‘Fake News: Public Policy Responses’, Media Policy Brief 20. London: Media Policy Project, London School of Economics and Political Science, Page 3-4 [ix] Pakistan Again Denies 2016 Surgical Strike, Calls it a ‘Figment of Indian Imagination’ https://www.news18.com/news/india/pakistan-again-denies-2016-surgical-strike-calls-it-a-figment-of-indian-imagination-1990907.html [x] IKIGAILAW, ‘The “fake news” problem: What are governments doing about it?’, September 2018 – https://www.ikigailaw.com/the_fake_news_problem/ [xi] Joint Declaration on Freedom of Expression and “Fake News”, Disinformation and Propaganda: adopted on 3rd March 2017 – https://www.osce.org/fom/302796?download=true [xii] Supra Note 9. See Page 2 [xiii] Angelopoulos Christina and Smet Stijn, ‘Notice-and-fair-balance: how to reach a compromise between fundamental rights in European intermediary liability’, 2016 [8(2)] Journal of Media Law, 266-301. Page 2 [xiv] Act to Improve Enforcement of the Law in Social Networks (Network Enforcement Act) https://www.bmjv.de/SharedDocs/Gesetzgebungsverfahren/Dokumente/NetzDG_engl.pdf%3Bjsessionid=70F6F3D932FEB908B0834ED8488E0D01.2_cid324?__blob=publicationFile&v=2 [xv] Law Proposition on the fight against the manipulation of information. http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/15/ta/tap0190.pdf [xvi] Stephan Lewandowsky and Ullrich K. H. Ecker, ‘Misinformation and Its Correction: Continued Influence and Successful Debiasing’ – https://dornsife.usc.edu/assets/sites/780/docs/12_pspi_lewandowsky_et_al_misinformation.pdf Next Story
It’s still cold and wet in England but warmer weather should soon be on the cards for Piers Williams as he becomes Chestertons’ first Ionian franchising partner.Owned and led by chief executive officer Piers Williams, Chestertons Ionian will be the first fully branded international estate agency for the area when it launches just before the Easter holidays.The team will be based in Corfu representing some of the most prestigious beachfront properties, land and private estates on the islands of Corfu, Kefalonia, Paxos, Zakynthos, Lefkada and Ithaca.Having set up his own independent estate agency business, Ionian International, in Corfu in 2002, Williams has invaluable local knowledge, expertise and business acumen from 20 years, covering residential sales, holiday rentals and property management.Piers said, “To be the first partner to join what I believe is the future of estate agency is hugely exciting. With Greece fast becoming a point of interest for second-home owners once more, this felt an ideal time to be a part of Chestertons’ new global franchise programme.“The world of international property is changing and I have always admired the history and strength of the Chestertons brand.Childhood passion!“I first discovered Corfu as a ten-year old boy, and subsequently visited the Ionian islands every year for the holidays, before relocating to Corfu in 2002. Greece has had to face various challenges and has had a tougher time than most, but the country has come out the other side and its appeal for second-home buyers continues to grow and we are now offering super rental opportunities for foreign buyers whilst the pound / euro rate is starting to trade at a more attractive level.”Jamie McMullan, COO of Chestertons Franchising UK & Europe added, “I’m delighted that Piers is one of the first agents to sign our franchise agreement. Being the only international estate agency with a fully branded shop front in the Ionian is very exciting too. Piers has an impressive career accolades and a true passion for the area, so I am confident that he will continue to flourish, adding value and profitability to the business.”https://www.chestertons.com/franchising.piers williams property in greece ionian islands property Greece Ionian Buying abroad European property Chestertons March 9, 2020Richard ReedOne commentMatthew Payne, Aficionado Property Consultants Aficionado Property Consultants 17th March 2020 at 4:35 pmDon’t Savills have a branded office in Corfu?Log in to ReplyWhat’s your opinion? Cancel replyYou must be logged in to post a comment.Please note: This is a site for professional discussion. Comments will carry your full name and company.This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.Related articles Letting agent fined £11,500 over unlicenced rent-to-rent HMO3rd May 2021 BREAKING: Evictions paperwork must now include ‘breathing space’ scheme details30th April 2021 City dwellers most satisfied with where they live30th April 2021 Home » News » Agencies & People » Chestertons confirms first global franchise partner previous nextAgencies & PeopleChestertons confirms first global franchise partnerLiving the Ionian dream: Chestertons opens up in the Greek islands, under a franchise run by Piers Williams.Sheila Manchester9th March 20201 Comment765 Views